Weasel Stereotypes in Animation

What looks like a weasel and what reminds us of one can be two different things.

Depictions of weasels in animation can be a controversial subject, but the way an animal is portrayed in media can be more influential than one may expect. Many people form opinions about mysterious and elusive animals like weasels at an early age from what they’ve learnt from cartoons or literature, and if there’s a lack of interest in attempting to learn more about them (which is usually the case), these same beliefs tend to stick with people through adulthood. So while animals in fictional media aren’t necessarily real, certain misrepresentations can result in lasting inaccurate or negative perceptions; especially when it comes to animals that are already largely stigmatized and misunderstood. This article is primarily focused on weasels, since they tend to be the most controversially depicted mustelids.

Unfortunately, when it comes to most Western media, mustelids haven’t received the best representation. Badgers and other mustelids have had it rough at times, but weasels in particular are nearly always typecast as antagonists and given wicked, misshapen or brutish features; when in reality their faces could hardly give chills to the most timid of children. Of course, not everyone has trouble separating fiction from reality, but we’d be in denial to say some of these depictions haven’t contributed to their stigmatisation.

Weasels haven’t been so “weasily identifiable”

Art and animation is, and should be a creative experience, but when attempting to portray a real-life animal, a reasonable degree of that animal’s anatomy should be present. This is because even if a real animal is portrayed as anthropomorphic, we cannot take away the fundamentals of what visually defines that animal. For example, giving a character the face, ears, paws and hind legs of a wolf and claiming it’s a purebred ferret (just because it was given a ferret-like tail), won’t exactly make it a ferret. Arguably, with the exception of external colouration, whenever too many key features of an animal are missing, the depiction is no longer stylization but rather a misrepresentation. In this case it would be better to claim that the character is a hybrid or invented species.

By far the most common visual alteration comes from cartoonists and animators giving weasels the facial structure of canidsrodents and soricids (shrews). Although less of an anatomy issue, some have even depicted weasels with buck teeth. Which is another strange feature, since mustelids are not rodents, and not a single one in existence has buck teeth. Unlike foxes, rabbits, lions, bears, and many other well-known or exotic animals, it’s rare to find weasels depicted halfway accurate in any form of mass media, and whenever we do it’s a pleasant surprise. There’s more to capturing the appearance of these mustelids than simply long torsos and necks.

They are often typecast as dimwitted miscreants

When it comes to their personality, weasels and other similar-looking mustelids are often generalized as the unintelligent, thieving, irredeemable coward; for no particular reason other than… well, they’re weasels. Despite being members of the same family, otters (and badgers to some degree) seem to be the only well-known mustelids that aren’t broadly stigmatized, or portrayed negatively in animation. Nevertheless, it’s worth remembering that many animated films were adapted from classic literature and even comics, so the typecast roles of weasels did not arise in one form of media.

Although the reasons behind the stigmatisation of weasels vary, it mostly stems from them being perceived as sneaky creatures that viciously attack small mammals and chickens. However, this behaviour is not unique, and is shared by other, more respected predators such as bears, foxes, eagles; including some free-ranging dogs and cats. In addition, the expression “weasel out of”, and the misnomer term “weasel word” has only needlessly contributed to their bum rap.

Unfortunately, most forms of media will often fixate on the negative reputation of weasels, and rarely utilize or look into their other traits. Mustelids in general are stealthy and clever; like most other wild animals, this much is true if they are to survive. However, such traits don’t necessarily mean they should be typecast as antagonists, as being stealthy and clever can open the door to more positive roles as well.

What gave rise to weasels looking like canids, soricids and rodents?

As previously mentioned, it’s the key visual features that are important for us to be able to represent a real animal. So why do so many creators choose to create a weasel character, and then discard those features, if they’re not interested in what weasels actually look like? Is it purely because weasels fit our concept of a misfit? Has the word “weasel” become more associated with a personality type and less about the animal?

While weasels given pointed cat ears and rodent buck teeth can certainly be difficult to identify (especially if they’re given rat-like tails or are drawn tailless), what is perhaps most baffling is the attachment of the elongated “dog-like” snout. What gave rise to such an exaggerated feature?

One possibility for the origin of the elongated snout could be from early cartoonists and animators using mink stoles as a reference for drawing weasels. Since both the mink’s skull and lower jaw were removed, the head of these stoles were typically disfigured. With no bone structure remaining, the snout would be pinched and stylized into a long, pointed shape; followed by an addition of artificial eyes. Although not commonly seen today, these mink stoles were likely the only weasel-like thing the average person saw to use as a reference at the time. On the other hand, exaggerated nose and snout lengths have been traditionally associated with characters that were meant to appear dishonest, so it’s hard to say if mink stoles were the only reason.

Whether or not the long snout originated with mink stoles, it still doesn’t explain why this look became so popular. We believe (although they’re not the first weasels to appear in animation), The Weasels in the 1949 animated film The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad helped widely popularize the long-muzzled weasel. While a great Walt Disney production, which eventually lead to the famous Toon Patrol gang in the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, this highly rated film likely contributed to the continuation of this style by Disney, and similar variations by other Western animation studios.

Given that there was minimal knowledge of weasels at the time, and lack of easy access to photographs and professional illustrations, few living beyond the countryside knew what these animals looked like. So even though Disney’s weasels resembled rounded-eared dachshunds, this style over time managed to become widely accepted as the “weasel look”. There are other examples of weasels drawn with long snouts such as #1 Unknown, #2 Cosgrove Hall Films, #3 Film Roman, #4 Warner Bros., and #5 Nickelodeon. We’re not saying these companies necessarily copied Disney, but their designs have striking similarities.

For many, Disney was a large part of their childhood, and since they were the first company to really give weasels attention in Western animation, it’s understandable how the look caught on. Perhaps the once renowned mink stole truly was the original reference back in the day, but it’s unlikely artists in the 21st century are still relying on grandmother’s dusty stole to practice drawing weasels. Unless going for full-on nostalgia, the long-snout look seems dated when compared to how our perception of other animals have improved.

We cannot however, blame the mink stole for weasels and other mustelids being drawn with buck teeth; a feature that was particularly prevalent in Nelvana’s 1999-2002 Redwall TV series. This dental mishap likely derives from a peculiar, yet popular misconception that mustelids are rodents. Portraying these animals with buck teeth would be similar to portraying wolves or tigers with buck teeth; even if the rest of the character’s design looked decent, seeing large, herbivorous incisors on a predator would be difficult to ignore.

Thankfully, deceptions of weasels in Western animation are starting to become more varied, but it is clear that they still have a ways to go before they’re thought of as real animals that are genuinely complex, and not just a narrow personality type. In the 2016 film Zootopia, despite most animals in the film looking very much like their species, Duke Weaselton (another typical weasel crook) carries on the standard of having to rely on his last name to even remotely tell he’s a weasel, rather than a unique species of canid. It’s true that he was just a minor antagonist, but given the anti-stereotyping message of the film, it’s a shame Disney didn’t take this opportunity to have a weasel rise above what’s expected from his species’ personality; or at the very least, attempt to capture the facial structure of his species with a little more accuracy, just as they did with other animals in the film.

It may be a common presumption that toony characters hold an excuse for being far less recognizable compared to their real-life counterparts, but as demonstrated by Moody F. in this Zootopia-style drawing of a long-tailed weasel, she shows it is completely possible to depict a weasel in a toony style and still have it resemble its species.

In conclusion, we want to be clear that we criticize not to cause animosity towards certain characters or films, but to help bring attention to these less discussed issues so we may see future improvement. Whatever the reasons are for the stereotypical look and roles of weasels, we are not against enjoying a classic. We acknowledge and agree that despite our opinions these characters have earned their merits in animation history. However, we should still be willing to ask ourselves if it’s time weasels deserve better than what they’re getting. Given nowadays we have better access to both animal facts and photographic references, there’s no reason why things can’t improve.

We’ve yet to see a mustelid-centred animated feature film

Felidscanids, fish and even bugs have had their films, but will there ever be one about mustelids? We see so many remakes, sequels, and similar plots in animation these days featuring the same ol’ animal species, why not change things up with the diversity and unexplored world of mustelids? There are approximately 60 species to choose from!

There’s a lot of amazing artwork of these animals drawn by independent artists online, yet this talent seldom makes it to the big screen. It is in our opinion that we are long overdue for a predominant mustelid animated film—one that features a variety of mustelid species, drawn by artists who understand both their anatomy and movements. A film with a storyline that can be appreciated by most ages, that stays mainly true to the nature of mustelids, while still giving the characters personality, instead of simply demonizing or praising based on their species. It is unclear if the world is ready for such a film.

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Mustelids in Media